Symbols in "The Scarlet Letter" In The Scarlet Letter, symbols appear everywhere. Hawthorne uses several different concrete objects to represent something of deeper meaning. Among these symbols is the scarlet letter "A" itself. It is made of red cloth and beautifully embroidered. It is a literal symbol of the sin of adultery. The letter "A" appears in several places and several forms. It is the letter that appears on Hester's heart that she is condemned to wear for the remainder of her life. At Governor Bellingham's mansion it is magnified in the breastplate. It seems as though she is hidden behind it. On the night that Dimmesdale stands on the scaffold with Hester and Pearl, a huge letter A appears in the sky. Later, while in the forest, Pearl arranges a letter a on her heart that is made of eel grass. One of the most dramatic of the A's that appear in the book is the A that appears on Dimmesdale's chest. Not only does the "A" symbolize adultery, but it also has several other meanings to the different characters as well. To the community, it is simply a mark of punishment. To Hester, it is a mark of embarrassment and humiliation. To Dimmesdale, the scarlet letter is a reminder of his own guilt. To Pearl, the mark is a mysterious curiosity. To Chillingworth, the "A" is his chance to get revenge on Dimmesdale. Later, the letter symbolizes "Able" when Hester wins some respect from the townspeople. The scarlet letter is meant to be a symbol of shame, but instead it becomes a powerful symbol of identity to Hester. The letter's meaning shifts as time passes. Originally intended to mark Hester as an adulterer, the â€œAâ€ eventually comes to stand for â€œAble.â€ Finally, it becomes indeterminate: the Native Americans who come to watch the Election Day pageant think it marks her as a person of importance and status. Like Pearl, the letter functions as a physical reminder of Hester's affair with Dimmesdale. But, compared with a human child, the letter seems insignificant, and thus helps to point out the ultimate meaninglessness of the community's system of judgment and punishment. The child has been sent from God, or at least from nature, but the letter is merely a human contrivance. Additionally, the instability of the letter's apparent meaning calls into question society's ability to use symbols for ideological reinforcement. More often than not, a symbol becomes... ... opposed to the strict Puritan community and laws. However, it is also a place where the witches come and sign their souls to the devil. Therefore, the forest can also symbolize darkness and evil Forest One of the most integral parts of the book, when Hester Prynne speaks to the Reverend Mr. Dimmesdale about their predicament, takes place in the forest. When reading the novel, it becomes increasingly apparent that there is a contrast between the forest and the town, as settings. The forest symbolizes a dark and mysterious place where impulses and urges reign and also where the goings-on are to be kept a secret. The forest is described as dismal, gloomy and full of shadows with an imposing, cloudy sky that is filled with threatening storms. When Dimmesdale and Hester first see each other, Hawthorne describes them as being "in the world beyond the grave, of two spirits who had intimately connected in their former life, but now stood coldly shuddering, in mutual dead". Also in the forest, Hester undid the clasp that fastened the scarlet letter, and, taking it from her bosom, threw it to a distance among the withered leaves....[and] took off the formal cap that confined her hair.
12/12/2019 0 Comments
Rails to Trails Program - Research Paper Example
As a function of this particular level of analysis, the author will discuss five of the sea goals/accomplishments that Rails to Trails has elaborated on within its 2011 annual report. By engaging in a summary and objective analysis of these goals and competence, it is the hoped that the reader can come to a more appreciable understanding of detailed victories and further goals that program necessarily engenders. Secondly, as a means of determining the effectiveness of the entity in question, the analysis will also engage with an analysis and discussion of whether media coverage of the group has been on the whole either positive, negative, or neutral. Likewise, by leveraging an understanding of the internal accomplishments and goals that the group seeks to affect as well as understanding the likely level to which societal shareholders have engaged with the group via the media, it will be able for the analysts to calm to a more clear and definitive understanding of whether or Not the macro and micro scheme that the group seeks to affect has a likelihood of general success. It can and should be understood that a broad and overarching goal that Rails to Trails has sought to affect is with regards to the level and extent to which the entity and its stakeholders continually seek to engage key members of Congress. This is done so that awareness within the minds of the legislatures can be created and key responses made with regards to proposed legislation and potential cuts (Hannan 44). In this manner, it can be understood by the reader that one of the primary goals with which Rails to Trails seeks to engage is with regards to the current economic environment; the environment in which the clear and present need for economic cuts places the life blood of Rails to Trails at a distinct risk. Accordingly, one of the greatest, judgments that was detailed within the annual report 2011 was with regards to the general success which was achieved at keeping the Federal Transportation Fund available to both highways and trails. Movements and interest by key legislators to remove trails and walking paths into the general fund of the Federal Transportation Fund; whereas before these programs that always enjoyed a degree of safety from the competition that the general fund would necessarily imply. Secondary item of success and a compliment is with regards to the way in which Rails to Trails engaged with Representative Mica. This was done in something of an expert manner due to the fact that Representative Mica only recently became the head of the Transportation Infrastructure Program; a powerful body that was able to decide what expenditures or cuts would be made to key government programs (Fisher 10). Due to the fact that Representative Mica was a Republican, it wouldâ€™ve been easy for the organization to merely seeks to combat him rather than co-opt him. However, a resounding success was able to be realized when stakeholders from Representative Micaâ€™s home district were able to begin passing several resolutions. These resolutions had the impact of encouraging Representative Mica to consider his view upon funding cuts and ultimately support the Rails to Trails Program. Another means by which a level of success was able to be realized was with regards to the partnership with the Campaign for Active Transportation (CAT). As a means of providing a unified voice and engaging with other stakeholders to maximize the combines impact upon legislation and potential cuts looming on the horizon, this particular engagement was extraordinarily helpful to achieving these goals (Hearne 118). Yet another compliment is with regards to the bipartisan support that Rails to Trails was able to
MGM International Resorts Case Analysis Memo Essay
To: James J. Murren From: Date: November 18, 2013 Subject: Issues of MGM International Resorts I am writing this letter in order to address the slow recovery of your company. It has come to my attention that your company, MGM International Resorts, is facing some major issues as the gaming and hospitality industry struggles to recover. In this letter I plan to address the industries problems, and the specific issues that your company is facing.
One of the major issues facing MGM International Resorts is that it is that the industry has a lot of overcapacity as demand has dropped from pre-recessionary evels when many big projects have been planned.
This is evidenced by your companys ambitious pre-recession project CityCenter, the largest private development project in United States history. CityCenter ended up opening to little fanfare. The biggest sources of revenue in the industry were conventions. Due to the economic downturn in 2008, revenues from Conventions have decreased dramatically and have not fully recovered.
Trade shows, associations and corporations traditionally paid a premium to meet in Las Vegas. Now with fewer organizations meet in Las Vegas, they can now negotiate lower prices. There are now increased leisure travelers going to Las Vegas to fill discounted rooms but does not help you increase revenue much as they do not like to spend money on your high end shopping and dining venues. Americans are also deciding more carefully spend their money preferring staycations in order to save money on increasing airfares and travel costs. This is mainly due to the decrease in discretionary spending of 43 percent from December 2007 to January 2011.
The road to recovery from the start of the economic recession for the industry is slower than predicted. Your company also aces strong competition from competitors such as Wynn Resorts and Las Vegas Sands who have managed to fare in the recession substantially better. MGM Resorts Internationals financial statements are not very good relative to your competitors. Your company had a degradation of financials compared to your competitors whom of which fared the recession much better. Your company is highly leveraged with net debt to EBITDA of 1 1. 5 times. Boyd, Las Vegas Sands have lower debt leveraging at 8. x, 3. 3x, 3. 4x, and 1 . 9x respectively. You are also not as widely diversified in regional American markets such as in the Northeast. Your company has recently lost money posting a net loss of 1,437. 4 million in 2010. I will first analyze the health of the gaming and hospitality industry in Las Vegas in which you compete using Porters Five Forces of Competition Model. The industry faces a lot of substitutes which your customers flock to. There is online gambling. This may keep people from flocking to casinos to gamble as they can conveniently do it at home.
There are also closer example of this would be Empire City Casino in Yonkers, NY. It is only half an hour way from New York City and very convenient for those in the area who would Just like to gamble for a night and return home. You do not face a very large threat from new entrants as the capital requirements to enter the gaming and hospitality industry are very high. Customers are able to easily switch from staying on your properties to another companys property. Your company also possesses a wide variety of products that are differentiated. That being said, Industry Rivalry between you and your competitors are very high.
All companies in the industry are on fairly qual ground ever since the recession. The costs to exit this industry are also very high. Customers again have very low switching costs and may switch between different properties as they see fit and the large excess in capacity in the industry means that you and all your competitors are cutting prices on rooms and services in order to attract business. The industrys suppliers of hospitality related supplies, such as food bed sheet and soap, and casino/gaming specific supplies, such as slot machines and thousands of decks of cards, have very weak bargaining power.
The ew large companies within the gaming and hospitality industry have the bargaining power with when it comes to its two supplier lines as there are many of these suppliers to buy from while only a few large companies that are willing to buy. The ability to use a companys size to negotiate price and length of contracts for expensive high luxury furnishings and exclusive rights to a show or celebrity chef also gives the gaming and hospitality industry strength. While bargaining power of the suppliers is weak, the bargaining power of buyers is very strong.
Customers have ery low switching costs and again the large excess in capacity in the industry means that you and all your competitors are cutting prices on rooms and services in order to attract business. Conventions, which are a large part of revenue have been on the downturn compared to capacity, again forcing prices downward. Buyers in the industry are also very price sensitive with many opting to take staycations where vacationers enjoy their time off closer to home. All of these forces add up to an industry that is relatively weak and recovering very slowly.
Using the growth-share nalysis, your company is positioned as a cash cow which is very good. Your company has high market share in a slow growing industry. The company should worry though as it is close to being a dog of the industry as it has a lot of debt from ill-timed large projects such as CityCenter and must worry about other companies stealing market share as they are recovering faster. The industry is very capital intensive which means a lot of revenue is being reinvested back into the business. I will now analyze your company through SWOT Analysis. Your company has quite a few strengths that ill help your company into the future.
Your companys large size gives it the upper hand in negotiating the best prices from its suppliers. It is very advantageous that your company caters to a wide range of customers from the high-end consumers with resorts such as the Bellagio offering exclusive products to the value-minded consumers with Circus Circus. Your ability to provide superior customer service by recruiting, training and retaining the best most motivated individuals is very valuable in your company. Your marketing and sales activities are another strong suit which compliments your services.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.